Niccolò machiavelli and other Florentines preferred the version spoken by ordinary people in their own times. The courtiers, like baldassare castiglione and gian giorgio trissino, insisted that each local vernacular contribute to the new standard. A fourth faction claimed the best Italian wood was the one that the papal court adopted, which was a mix of Florentine and the dialect of Rome. Eventually, bembo's ideas prevailed, and the foundation of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence (15821583 the official legislative body of the Italian language led to publication of Agnolo monosini 's Latin tome Floris italicae linguae libri novem in 1604 followed by the first Italian dictionary. The continual advancements in technology plays a crucial role in the diffusion of languages. After the invention of the printing press in the fifteen century, the number of printing presses in Italy grew rapidly and by the year 1500 reached a total of 56, the biggest number of printing presses in all of Europe. This allowed to produce more pieces of literature at a lower cost and as the dominant language, italian spread. 27 Modern era edit An important event that helped the diffusion of Italian was the conquest and occupation of Italy by napoleon in the early 19th century (who was himself of Italian-Corsican descent).
26 pietro bembo was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language from the tuscan dialect, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage. Italian became the language used in the courts of every state in the Italian peninsula. The rediscovery of Dante's de vulgari eloquentia and a renewed interest in linguistics in the 16th century, sparked a debate that raged throughout Italy concerning the criteria that should govern the establishment of a modern Italian literary and spoken language. This discussion, known as "questione della lingua" (i. E., the problem of the language ran through the Italian culture until the end of the 19th century, often linked to the political debate on achieving a united Italian state. Renaissance scholars divided into three main factions: The purists, headed by venetian pietro bembo (who, in his Gli Asolani, claimed the language might be based only on the great literary classics, such as Petrarch and some part of Boccaccio). The purists thought the divine comedy was not dignified enough because it used elements from non-lyric registers of the language.
Alphabet - simple English wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
During this time, long-existing beliefs stemming from federalist the teachings of the roman Catholic Church began to be understood from new a perspectives as humanists —individuals who placed emphasis on the human body and its full potential—began to shift focus from the church to human beings. 24 Humanists began forming new beliefs in various forms: social, political, and intellectual. The ideals of the renaissance were evident throughout the Protestant Reformation, which took place simultaneously with the renaissance. The Protestant Reformation began with Martin Luther 's rejection of the selling of indulgences by johann Tetzel and other authorities within the roman Catholic Church, resulting in Luther's eventual break-off from the roman Catholic Church in the diet of Worms. After Luther was excommunicated from the roman Catholic Church, he founded what was then understood to be a sect of Catholicism, later referred to as Lutheranism.
24 Luther's preaching in favor of faith and scripture rather than tradition led him to translate the bible into many other languages, which would allow for people from all over Europe to read the bible. Previously, the bible was only written in Latin, but after the bible was translated, it resume could be understood in many other languages, including Italian. The Italian language was able to spread even more with the help of Luther and the invention of the printing press by johannes Gutenberg. The printing press facilitated the spread of Italian because it was able to rapidly produce texts, such as the bible, and cut the costs of books which allowed for more people to have access to the translated Bible and new pieces of literature. 25 The roman Catholic Church was losing its control over the population, as it was not open to change, and there was an increasing number of reformers with differing beliefs.
In addition to the widespread exposure gained through literature, the Florentine dialect also gained prestige due to the political and cultural significance of Florence at the time and the fact that it was linguistically an intermediate between the northern and the southern Italian dialects. 21 :22 Thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the official language of Italy. Italian was progressively made an official language of most of the Italian states predating unification, slowly replacing Latin, even when ruled by foreign powers (like spain in the kingdom of Naples, or Austria in the kingdom of Lombardy-venetia even though the masses kept speaking primarily. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the austro-hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.
Those dialects now have considerable variety. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of regional Italian. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e and of "s" in some cases:. Va bene "all right is pronounced va bɛne by a roman (and by any standard Italian speaker va bene by a milanese (and by any speaker whose native dialect lies to the north of the la speziarimini line a casa "at home" is a kasa. In contrast to the gallo-Italic linguistic panorama of northern Italy, the Italo-dalmatian neapolitan and its related dialects were largely unaffected by the Franco- occitan influences introduced to Italy mainly by bards from France during the middle Ages, but after the norman conquest of southern Italy. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are careful not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages. The economic might and relatively advanced development of Tuscany at the time ( Late middle Ages ) gave its language weight, though Venetian remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life, and Ligurian (or Genoese) remained in use in maritime trade alongside the mediterranean. The increasing political and cultural relevance of Florence during the periods of the rise of the banco medici, humanism, and the renaissance made its dialect, or rather a refined version of it, a standard in the arts. Renaissance edit The renaissance era, known as il Rinascimento in Italian, was seen as a time of "rebirth which is the literal meaning of both renaissance (from French) and rinascimento (Italian).
Primary resources: English: Text level: Persuasive writing
They are not in any sense "dialects of" standard Italian, that itself started off being one of these local tongues, but sister languages of Italian. Since they often provide poor mutual intelligibility you with standard Italian, they are better classified as distinct languages. 21 :13 The standard Italian language has a poetic and literary origin in the writings of Tuscan writers of the 12th century, and, even though the grammar and core lexicon are basically unchanged from those used in Florence in the 13th century, 22 the modern. However, romance vernacular as language spoken in the Appenine peninsula has a longer history. In fact, the earliest surviving texts that can definitely be called vernacular (as distinct from its predecessor Vulgar Latin) are legal formulae known as the Placiti cassinesi from the Province of Benevento that date from 960963, although the veronese riddle, probably from the 8th. 23 The language that came to be thought of as Italian developed in central Tuscany and was essay first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native florentine. Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the commedia, to which another Tuscan poet giovanni boccaccio later affixed the title divina, were read throughout the peninsula and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language.
Throughout the middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Italians were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Italian. Its vowels are the second-closest to latin after Sardinian. 18 19 Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. 20 As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. Contents History edit Origins edit during the middle Ages, the established written language in Europe was Latin, though the great majority of people were illiterate, and only a handful were well versed in the language. In the Italian peninsula, as in most of Europe, most would instead speak a local vernacular. These dialects (as they are commonly referred to) were born from identity Vulgar Latin over the course of centuries, evolving naturally unaffected by formal standards and teachings.
speakers in non-eu european countries (such as Switzerland and Albania) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 90 million. 15 Italian is the main working language of the holy see, serving as the lingua franca (common language) in the roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and opera. Its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world. 16 Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. 17 Its development was also influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent, by the germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. The incorporation into Italian of learned words from its own ancestor language, latin, is another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language, scientific terminology and the liturgical language of the Church.
Italy, switzerland, san Marino, vatican City and western, istria (in, slovenia and, croatia ). It used to have official status. Albania, malta and, monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former. Italian East way Africa and, italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and, australia. 12 It has official minority status in Bosnia and Herzegovina, croatia, slovenia and Romania. 13 Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages. 14 Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organisation for Security and cooperation in Europe and one of the working languages of the council of Europe.
Ielts general Task 1 letter Writing engVid
For other uses, see. This article is about the standardized Italian language. For other Italian languages originating or spoken in Italy, see. Italian ( italiano italjano or lingua italiana liŋɡwa italjana ) is a, romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the. Sardinian language, the closest tongue to, vulgar Latin of the romance languages. 11, italian is an official language.