England essay

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Furthermore, since 1945, there has been the salisbury convention that the house of Lords will not oppose a measure that was specifically mentioned in the last election manifesto of the political party forming the government. The house of Lords is an utterly bizarre institution that has no parallel anywhere in the democratic world. The explanation for the unusual nature of the lords goes back to the beginning of this essay: the British political system has evolved very slowly and peacefully and it is not totally logical or democratic. There is no fixed number of members in the house of Lords and the number fluctuates because of deaths, retirements and new appointments, but currently there are almost 800 members - many more than in the house of Commons, more than the combined houses. The number was actually halved to 666 in the reforms of 1999 but, since then, succesive prime ministers (especially david Cameron) have been adding new life peers much faster than members are dying. Indeed the last (Coalition) government added over 100. Ironically the size of the house of Lords continues to rise at the same time as the house of Commons has legislated to reduce its size (although the legislation has not been implemented). Historically most members of the house of Lords have been what we called hereditary peers.

Until recently, in the uk (unlike many countries there was not fixed term parliaments. A general Election - that is, a nationwide election for all 650 seats - was held when the Prime minister called it, but the election could not be more than five years resume after the last one and it was usually around four years after the. I fought the general Elections of February 1974 and October 1974 as the labour candidate for the north-east London constituency of Wanstead woodford. The coalition government of passed legislation to provide for fixed five-year parliaments which meant that the next General Election was scheduled for may 2020. However, the Prime minister Theresa may was able to call a snap General Election for by winning a commons vote of more than two-thirds to activate provision for an early election in the fixed Term Parliaments Act. The result of the last General Election was as follows: Conservative party: 318 seats (down 13) with.45 of the vote labour Party: 262 seats (up 32) with.99 of the vote Scottish National Party: 35 seats (down 19) with.04 of the vote liberal. Note 2: In Northern Ireland, sinn fein - which won 7 constituencies in 2017 - does not take its seats. Links: house of Commons site click here bbc live broadcasting of Commons proceedings click here The house of Lords This is the upper chamber but the one with less authority. Its main roles are to revise legislation and keep a check on government by scrutinising essay its activities. Since 1911, its power to block "money bills" is limited to one month and its power to block other bills is limited to one session, so ultimately it cannot block the will of the house of Commons.

england essay

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The coalition government of intended to make the size of constituencies more equal in terms of electors, but so far the legislation has not been implemented. Every citizen aged 18 or over can vote once in the constituency in which they live. Voting is not compulsory (as it is in Australia). In the last General Election of may 2015,.1 of the electorate actually voted. Most democratic countries use a method of election called proportional representation (PR) which means that there is a reasonable correlation between the percentage of votes cast for a particular political party and the number of seats or representatives won by that party. However, much of the Anglo-saxon world - the usa, canada, and the uk but not Australia or New zealand - uses a method of election called the simple majority system or 'first past the post' (fptp). In this system, the country is divided william into a number of constituencies each with a single member and the party that wins the largest number of votes in each constituency wins that constituency regardless of the proportion of the vote secured. The simple majority system of election tends to under-represent less successful political parties and to maximise the chance of the most popular political party winning a majority of seats nationwide even if it does not win a majority of the votes nationwide.

england essay

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The origin of this strange arrangement is that the commons first home was the medieval St Stephen's Chapel in the palace of Westminster which could only fit around 400 Members. Equally odd is that Members vote (votes are called 'divisions by physically walking through one dream of the two lobbies which run along the side of the commons chamber. These lobbies are the 'aye' lobby and the 'nay' lobby. This archaic procedure means that votes take a long time to conduct and it is not unknown for a member accidentally to walk into the wrong lobby. The votes are counted by 'tellers' who then return to the chamber to announce the numbers to the Speaker. Each member in the house of Commons represents a geographical constituency. Typically a constituency would have around 60,000-80,000 voters, depending mainly on whether it is an urban or rural constituency. The largest constituency in the country is the Isle of Wight with around 110,000 electors, while the smallest is na h-Eileanan an Iar (formerly known as the western Isles) with an electorate of only arouind 22,000.

Thursday.30 am -.30 pm Friday.30 am - 3 pm The commons is chaired by the Speaker. Unlike the Speaker in the us house of Representatives, the post is non-political and indeed, by convention, the political parties do not contest the parliamentary constituency held by the Speaker. The house of Commons currently comprises 650 Members of Parliament or MPs (the number varies slightly from time to time to reflect population change). This is a large legislature by international standards. For instance, the house of Representatives in the usa has 435 seats but, of course, each of the 50 us states has its own legislature. Before the general Election of 2010, the conservative party said that it wished to reduce the number of Commons seats by around 10 (65 seats) and the liberal Democrats said that the commons should be reduced by 150 MPs. The coalition government of passed legislation to reduce the number from 650 to 600, as part of a wider change to the number and size of constituencies, but Parliament blocked the process of redrawing boundaries that is necessary before an General Election can be held. Rather oddly (but deliberately there is insufficient seating capacity in the chamber of the house of Commons for all the mps. Members do not sit at desks (like most legislatures) but on long, green-covered benches and there is only seating capacity for 437 MPs out of the total of 650.

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england essay

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So, for example, the President is not and cannot be a bio member of the congress. This concept is called 'separation of powers a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu. This is not the case in the uk where all Ministers in the government are members of the legislature and one individual, the lord Chancellor, is actually a member of all three arms. Parliament, the British Parliament - like that resume of most larger countries - is bicameral, that is there are two houses or chambers. One tends to find unicameral legislatures in smaller nations such as Denmark, sweden, finland, Greece, israel and New zealand, although China and Iran are two larger nations with a single legislative chamber (but neither of these countries is a democracy). The British Parliament is often called Westminster because it is housed in a distinguished building in central London called the palace of Westminster which stands out because of the clock tower at the south end (this is the Elizabeth Tower and it houses Big Ben). Although this is a grand building, it is in an appalling state of repair and it is planned that in 2025 Parliament will move out of the building for.5 billion refurbishment programme lasting an estinated six years.

The house of Commons will move to richmond house and the house of Lords will relocate to the queen Elizabeth ii conference centre. The house of Commons, this is the lower chamber but the one with the most authority. I worked there as a research Assistant to merlyn rees mp, then Labour's Opposition spokesperson on Northern Ireland, from. The house of Commons sits each week day for about half of the weeks of the year. The precise hours of sitting are: Monday.30 -.30. Tuesday.30 -.30 pm, wednesday.30 am -.30.

The final important part of British political history is that, since 1973, the uk has been a member of what is now called the european Union (EU). This now has 28 Member States covering most of the continent of Europe. Therefore the uk government and Parliament are limited in some respects by what they can do because certain areas of policy or decision-making are a matter for the eu which operates through a european Commission appointed by the member governments and a european Parliament elected. However, in a referendum held on, the British people narrowly voted that the country should leave the european Union (a decsion dubbed Brexit a process that was activated in March 2017 but will take two years and be very complex. The year 2015 was a special year for the British Parliament as it was the 750th anniversary of the de montfort Parliament (the first gathering in England that can be called a parliament in the dictionary sense of the word along with the 800th anniversary. Three arms of the state, the British political system is headed by a monarchy but essentially the powers of the monarch as head of state - currently queen Elizabeth ii - are ceremonial.

The most important practical power is the choice of the member of Parliament to form a government, but the monarch follows the convention that this opportunity is granted to the leader of the political party with the most seats in the house of Commons. Although any remaining powers of the monarchy are largely ceremonial, the royal Family does have some subtle and hidden influence on the legislative process because of a little-known provision that senior royals - notably the queen and her eldest son the Prince of Wales. Traditionally the choice of monarch has been determined on the hereditary and primogeniture principles which means that the oldest male child of a monarch was the next in line to the throne. Under the terms of the Act of Settlement of 1701, the monarch and the monarch's spouse could not be catholics because the uk monarch is also the head of the Church of England. In 2015, the primogeniture principle was abolished, so that the next in line can now be a female eldest child, and the monarch can marry a catholic but not himself or herself be one. In classical political theory, there are three arms of the state: The executive - the ministers who run the country and propose new laws. The legislature - the elected body that passes new laws. The judiciary - the judges and the courts who ensure that everyone obeys the laws. In the political system of the United States, the constitution provides that there must be a strict division of powers of these three arms of the state, so that no individual can be a member of more than one.

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It was the 19th century before the franchise was seriously extended and each extension was the subject of conflict and opposition. The great Reform Act of 1832 abolished 60 'rotten or largely unpopulated, boroughs and extended the vote from 400,000 citizens to 600,000, but this legislation - promoted by the Whigs (forerunners of the liberals) - was only carried after being opposed three times by the. Further Reform Acts followed in 18It was 1918 before the country achieved a near universal franchise and 1970 before the last extension of the franchise (to 18-21 year olds). Another important feature of British political history is that three parts of the United Kingdom - scotland, wales and Northern Ireland - have a special status and have local administrations with a wide range of responsibilities. However, England - which represents about 84 of the total uk population of around 65 million - does not have a clear and strong sense of regionalism. So the British political system does not have anything equivalent book to the federal system of the 50 states in the usa. The nature of this (dis)United Kingdom took on a new form in the general Election of may 2015 when the Scottish National Party won 56 out of 59 seats in Scotland.

england essay

British attitudes towards the rest of Europe have been insular, not just geographically buzz but culturally, which was a major factor behind the Brexit decision of to simplify British political history very much, it has essentially been a struggle to shift political power and accountability from. There have been many milestones along this long and troubled road to full democracy. A key date in this evolution was 1215 when King John was forced to sign the magna carta which involved him sharing power with the barons. This is regarded as the first statement of citizen rights in the world - although Hungarians are proud of the golden Bull of just seven years later. The so-called Model Parliament was summoned by king Edward i in 1295 and is regarded as the first representative assembly. Unlike the absolute monarchs of other parts of Europe, the king of England required the approval of Parliament to tax his subjects and so, then as now, central to the exercise of power was the ability to raise funds. The bicameral nature of the British Parliament - commons and Lords - emerged in 1341 and the two-chamber model of the legislature has served as a template in very many other parliamentary systems. The bill of Rights of 1689 - which is still in effect - lays down limits on the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement for regular elections to parliament, and.

- the abolition of the monarchy. There was a time in British history which we call the Glorious revolution (1688) but it was a very English revolution, in the sense that nobody died, if a rather Dutch revolution in that it saw William of Orange take the throne. So the British have never had anything equivalent to the American revolution or the French revolution, they have not been colonised in a millennium but rather been the greatest colonisers in history, and in neither of the two world wars were they invaded or occupied. How history has shaped the political system. The single most important fact in understanding the nature of the British political system is the fundamental continuity of that system. For almost 1,000 years, Britain has not been invaded or occupied for any length of time or over any substantial territory as the last successful invasion of England was in 1066 by the normans. Is this true of any other country in the world? I can only think of Sweden. This explains why: almost uniquely in the world, Britain has no written constitution (the only other such nations are Israel, new zealand and saudi Arabia) the political system is not neat or logical or always fully democratic or particularly efficient change has been very gradual.

Regal pickings were more lucrative in his southern capital. A century later the Scottish economic and political elite bankrupted themselves on the darien Scheme and agreed to a scheme of Union between England and Scotland to make themselves solvent again and so Great Britain with one parliament based in London came into being. The Irish parliament was abolished in 1801 with Ireland returning members to westminster and the new political entity was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The southern (Catholic) Irish never reconciled themselves to being ruled by the English the and rebelled in 1916 and gained independence in 1922. The northern (Protestant) Irish did not want independence and so the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland arrived. Not a snappy name. Meanwhile, although the normans were the last to mount a successful invasion of the country, there were plenty of other plans to conquer the nation, notably the Spanish under King Philip ii in 1588, the French under Napoleon in, and the germans under Hitler. Furthermore, in recent centuries, Britain has not had a revolution of the kind experienced by so many other countries.

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British political system, back to home page click here, a wallpaper short guide to the, british political system. Contents, a very, very short history, to understand fully any country's political system, one needs to understand something of its history. This is especially true of the United Kingdom because its history has been very different from most other nations and, as a result, its political system is very different from most other nations too. Like its (unwritten) constitution, the British state evolved over time. We probably need to start in 1066 when William the conqueror from Normandy invaded what we now call England, defeated the Anglo-saxon King Harold and established a norman dynasty. The normans were not satisfied with conquering England and, over the next few centuries, tried to conquer Ireland, wales and Scotland. They succeeded with the first two and failed with the last despite several wars over the centuries. By one of those ironical twists of history, when queen Elizabeth of England died in 1603, she was succeeded by her cousin James vi, king of Scots who promptly decamped from Edinburgh and settled in London as King James i of England while keeping his.

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