Essay about pollution in malayalam

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Some Americans draw on the supposedly romantic appeals of Gypsy traditions—especially traditions of dancing and music-making, lives on the road, and maintaining a traveling culture. Often, established Americans maintain or adopt European prejudices against Gypsies and treat Gypsy immigrants poorly. Just as Europeans have often attributed the fortune-telling skills of Gypsies to "black magic gypsy traders have been accused of fencing stolen goods, and of stealing their goods themselves. Laws attempting to deter, prevent, and punish fortune-tellers and thieves in America have singled out Gypsy Americans. According to Sway, until 1930, virginia legally barred Gypsies from telling fortunes. And in New Jersey in the middle 1980s, special regulations and licensing requirements applied to gypsies who told fortunes. Gypsy households have been labeled as "dens of thieves" so that charges brought against one resident may apply to any and all. In Mississippi in the middle 1980s, such application of liability "jointly-and-severally" is law.

Rom flocked to the depression cities during the 1920s and 1930s to take advantage of various relief programs, and remained there because of gas rationing and because of increasing business opportunities within the city.". Because gypsies tend to follow economic opportunities, the most populous cities, such as Los Angeles, san Francisco, new York, chicago, boston, Atlanta, dallas, houston, seattle, and Portland, have the largest concentrations of Gypsies. Currently, there are romnichal strongholds of very conservative gypsies who reside in homework Texarkana, southern Arkansas, and other predominantly rural regions. Gypsies also have joined American movement westward. Many live in California. Continued harassment, gypsy Americans who can do so often travel to other parts of the western Hemisphere and to europe. Many repeatedly visit certain places as part of a set route, including places where their kinfolk lived for generations. Gypsy Americans largely consider Eastern Europe their peoples' home. "In 1933 at the first International Conference on Gypsy Affairs held in Bucharest, romania stated Sway, "the United Gypsies of Europe asked for a piece of land in Bucharest where gypsies in trouble could settle. Later in 1937, janus Kwiek, the 'gypsy king of Poland asked Mussolini to grant the gypsies a strip of land in Abyssinia (present-day ethiopia) so they might escape persecution in various host societies.". Many Americans have romanticized Gypsies as exotic foreigners.

essay about pollution in malayalam

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Awareness of the best cities, small towns, or rural areas as markets for their services has guided all travel. A group might camp for weeks, sometimes months, at especially productive urban areas, returning to these spots year after year. Gypsy Americans might maintain a sequence of home bases; they often live in mobile homes, settling indefinitely in a trailer park. They may tear down walls or and enlarge the doorways of their homes to combine rooms or make them larger to create a wide open space suitable for the large social gatherings that occur in Rom homes. Urban Gypsies, carol Silverman noted that Gypsies frequently pass along the houses, apartments, or trailers that they modify to a succession of Gypsy families. While some gypsy Americans travel to make their living, others pursue settled careers in a variety of occupations according to their education tree and opportunities. The gypsy population has been participating in American migrations from countryside into cities. Yet estimates tend to support that the gypsy American population at any given time is evenly divided between urban and rural areas. Generally, as noted by silverman, the urbanization of the rom began as early as the end of the eighteenth century when various groups began to spend the winter months camping in vacant lots on the outskirts of cities, and intensified when "a large number.

essay about pollution in malayalam

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Still, the roma hoped to escape social oppression in the new World. Of Gypsies deported to south American colonies, some migrated North. Some gypsies were annexed into America with territory itself: for example, napoleon transported hundreds of Gypsy men to louisiana during the two-year period before selling the louisiana territory to the United States in 1803. More recently, toward the end of the twentieth century, the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe has enabled Gypsies to emigrate more freely, at times with renewed harassment as incentive, bringing new waves of Eastern European Gypsies to the United States. Settlement patterns, the traditional stereotype of the gypsy is the wanderer, and some modern Gypsy Americans continue to travel in pursuit of their livelihoods. Rather than wander, they tend to move purposefully from one destination to another. Historically, some families have reportedly traveled in regular circuits, often returning to the same places; others have ranged more widely, following no set route.

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essay about pollution in malayalam

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There are also a few small groups of environmental Rumanian Ludar, who may be gypsies, in addition to the population of Gypsy Americans who emigrated from the gypsy stronghold within the nation of Romania. Immigration waves to the united states. Gypsies have come to the United States for reasons similar to those of other immigrants; however, since european powers have tended to oppose gypsies, this hostility has hastened Gypsy emigrations. According to Sway, "Gypsy deportations from England, France, portugal, and Spain created the genesis of Gypsy life in the new World." Gypsies' social marginality left them little institutional power in Europe. Sway adds that England deported some gypsies to barbados and Australia, and by the end of the seventeenth century, every european country with New World holdings followed the practice of deporting Gypsies to the Americas.

Suspicion between Gypsies and established institutions also spurred Gypsy emigration. Christian churches of Europe attacked Gypsy fortune-tellers, prompting deportations. Sending Gypsies home was not an option—no nation welcomed them since their origin in India was unknown to the western world until the eighteenth century. Near the end of the nineteenth century, eastern European emigrants spread throughout Europe and the western Hemisphere; within this mass movement came the biggest immigrant waves of Gypsies to the United States. Although Europeans have historically treated Gypsies poorly, gypsies tended to fare better in Western Europe than in Eastern Europe, where they suffered the extremes of racial prejudice, including enslavement.

Although these two groups have much in common, they also are divided by the cultural differences and prejudices between Great Britain and Eastern Europe. The romnichals came to the United States earlier than the rom, and ran successful horse-trading operations in New England. The rom arrived in the United States during the late nineteenth century. It is uncertain how many gypsies are in the United States because many gypsies' entry was undocumented, and others were recorded by their country of origin and not as Gypsies. The roma-sponsored Patrin website explains, "Many roma themselves do not admit to their true ethnic origins for economic and social reasons." Most chillingly, the nazis rounded up and killed one million Gypsies during World War. Almost all Gypsies in the United States originated from some part of Europe, although there are a few small groups from elsewhere, such as parts of Asia.

Some "black dutch from Germany, the netherlands, and Pennsylvania, intermarried with Romnichals and are counted as Anglo-Americans. Besides the eastern Europeans who make up the large group of Rom, there are in the United States two other large groups of Gypsies: the baschalde (from Slovakia, hungary, and Carpagia who may number close to 100,000; and the romungre (from Hungary and Transylvania) who. There are also some horchanay, who are historically muslims from the south Balkans, and a small population of Sinti gypsies, who came from Northern Europe—germany, netherlands, France, austria, hungary—where they, like other Gypsies, were targets of the nazis. There are also bosnian and Polish Gypsies present in the United States. Within the category of Rom Gypsies, there are several subgroups in the United States, such as the kalderash and Machwaya. One of the most recent immigrations of a gypsy group is that of the lovara, which arrived in the 1990s.

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Such treatment likely encouraged their traditionally nomadic way of life. Eventually europeans used "Gypsies" or related words to name not only a particular ethnic group of people, but also other groups of people, unrelated by blood, whose traveling lifestyles made them resemble ethnic Gypsies. For the most part, gypsies kept to themselves as a people; however, as Matt Salo suggests in his introduction. Urban Gypsies, "The existence of a number of Gypsy-like peripatetic groups, some of which (such as British Travellers) have intermarried with Gypsies. Complicate our attempts at classification" of who should not count and who should count as Gypsies. Although purists tend good to define the group narrowly, loose classifications of ethnic Gypsies include all nomads who live and identify themselves as Gypsies. The two groups of Gypsy Americans about whom scholars know the most are the rom and the romnichals. Many of the rom came to the new World from Russia or Eastern or Central Europe; the romnichals twist came from Great Britain.

essay about pollution in malayalam

Hindi point to their common origin. Although a persian story has been cited as proof they came from a single caste of entertainers, more recent evidence, including blood-type research, points to a gathering of diverse peoples in the punjab region of India to form an army and its support groups. In the eleventh century some of this group moved north through Kashmir and west into persia. After some generations they pushed on to Armenia, then fled Turkish invaders by entering the byzantine Empire. By the thirteenth century they reached the balkan Peninsula; Serbian and Romanian terms came into their language. Thereafter they split into smaller groups that dispersed throughout Europe, absorbed cultural and linguistic influences of their host countries, and developed differences that persist among Gypsy subgroups today. The roma had reached Western Europe from regions dominated by the feared Ottoman Empire. Their language and appearance set them apart from the resident populations; they repeatedly suffered harassment or worse at the hands of the local majority.

Ethnic Gypsies are the descendants of diverse groups of people who were assembled in northern India as a military force to resist the eastward movement of Islam. Over the centuries, they moved westward into europe and northern Africa, adapting their language and culture in their migrations. Gypsy Americans represent family groups from England (Romnichals eastern Europe (the review rom, subdivided into kalderash, lovari, and Machvaya romania (Ludar and Germany. They sometimes entered the United States after residing in other parts of the western hemisphere for a period of time. An accurate estimate of their numbers is difficult to achieve. If counted in a census at all, it is typically by their country of origin. Estimates of the total population of ethnic Gypsies in the United States range from fewer than 100,000 to one million. History, the rom linguist.

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