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Once nucleus accumbens δfosB is sufficiently overexpressed, it begins to increase the severity of addictive behavior (i.e., compulsive drug-seeking) with further increases in its expression. 91 94 While there are currently no effective drugs for treating amphetamine addiction, regularly engaging in sustained aerobic exercise appears to reduce the risk of developing such an addiction. 95 96 Sustained aerobic exercise on a regular basis also appears to be an effective treatment for amphetamine addiction; sources 8 exercise therapy improves clinical treatment outcomes and may be used as a combination therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy, which is currently the best clinical. Addiction edit This diagram depicts the signaling events in the brain's reward center that are induced by chronic high-dose exposure to psychostimulants that increase the concentration of synaptic dopamine, like amphetamine, methamphetamine, and phenethylamine. Following presynaptic dopamine and glutamate co-release by such psychostimulants, 103 104 postsynaptic receptors for these neurotransmitters trigger internal signaling events through a camp-dependent pathway and a calcium-dependent pathway that ultimately result in increased creb phosphorylation. Phosphorylated creb increases levels of δfosB, which in turn represses the c-Fos gene with the help of corepressors ; c-Fos repression acts as a molecular switch that enables the accumulation of δfosB in the neuron. 109 A highly stable (phosphorylated) form of δfosb, one that persists in neurons for 12 months, slowly accumulates following repeated high-dose exposure to stimulants through this process.

According to the usfda, "there is no systematic evidence" that stimulants produce aggressive behavior or hostility. 16 Amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking therapeutic doses, 44 85 meaning that individuals acquire a preference for spending time in places where they have previously used amphetamine. 85 86 overdose edit This section is transcluded from Amphetamine. ( edit history ) An amphetamine overdose can lead to many different symptoms, but is rarely fatal with appropriate care. 2 74 87 The severity of yoga overdose symptoms increases with dosage and decreases with drug tolerance to amphetamine. 27 74 Tolerant individuals have been known to take as much as 5 grams of amphetamine in a day, which is roughly 100 times the maximum daily therapeutic dose. 74 Symptoms of a moderate and extremely large overdose are listed below; fatal amphetamine poisoning usually also involves convulsions and coma. 15 27 In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an " amphetamine use disorder " resulted in an estimated 3,788 deaths worldwide (3,4254,145 deaths, 95 confidence ). Note 8 88 Pathological overactivation of the mesolimbic pathway, a dopamine pathway that connects the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, plays a central role in amphetamine addiction. 89 90 Individuals who frequently overdose on amphetamine during recreational use have a high risk of developing an amphetamine addiction, since repeated overdoses gradually increase the level of accumbal δfosb, a "molecular switch" and "master control protein" for addiction.

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27 Amphetamine also has a slight analgesic effect and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opioids. 2 27 usfda-commissioned studies from 2011 indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events ( sudden death, heart attack, and stroke ) and the medical use of amphetamine or other adhd stimulants. Sources 5 However, amphetamine pharmaceuticals are contraindicated in individuals with cardiovascular disease. Sources 6 Psychological edit At normal therapeutic doses, the most common psychological side effects of amphetamine include increased alertness, apprehension, concentration, initiative, self-confidence, and sociability, mood swings ( elated mood followed by mildly depressed mood insomnia or wakefulness, and decreased sense of fatigue. 16 27 Less common side effects include anxiety, change in libido, grandiosity, irritability, repetitive or obsessive behaviors, and restlessness; sources 7 these effects depend on the user's personality and current mental state. 27 Amphetamine psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia ) can occur in heavy users. Although very rare, this psychosis can also occur at therapeutic doses during long-term therapy.

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2 16 Other potential side effects include blurred vision, dry mouth, excessive grinding of the teeth, nosebleed, profuse sweating, rhinitis medicamentosa (drug-induced nasal congestion reduced seizure threshold, and tics (a type of movement disorder). Sources 4 Dangerous physical side effects are rare at typical pharmaceutical doses. 27 Amphetamine stimulates the medullary respiratory centers, producing faster and deeper breaths. 27 In a normal person at therapeutic doses, this effect is usually not noticeable, but when respiration is already compromised, it may be evident. 27 Amphetamine also induces contraction in the urinary bladder sphincter, the muscle which controls urination, which can result in difficulty urinating. 27 This effect can be useful in treating bed wetting and loss of bladder control. 27 The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. 27 If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may reduce gastrointestinal motility (the make rate at which content moves through the digestive system 27 however, amphetamine may increase motility when the smooth muscle of the tract is relaxed.

( edit history ) The side effects of Adderall are many and varied, but the amount of substance consumed is the primary factor in determining the likelihood and severity of side effects. Adderall is currently approved for long-term therapeutic use by the usfda. 16 Recreational use of Adderall generally involves far larger doses and is therefore significantly more dangerous, involving a much greater risk of serious side effects. 27 Physical edit At normal therapeutic doses, the physical side effects of amphetamine vary widely by age and from person to person. 16 Cardiovascular side effects can include hypertension or hypotension from a vasovagal response, raynaud's phenomenon (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet and tachycardia (increased heart rate). Sexual side effects in males may include erectile dysfunction, frequent erections, or prolonged erections. 16 Abdominal side effects may include abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, and weight loss.

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70 Injection into the bloodstream can be dangerous because insoluble fillers within the tablets can block small blood vessels. 70 Many postsecondary students have reported using Adderall for study purposes in different parts of the developed world. 69 Among these students, some of the risk factors for misusing adhd stimulants recreationally include: possessing deviant personality characteristics (i.e., exhibiting delinquent or deviant behavior inadequate accommodation of special needs, basing one's self-worth on external validation, low self-efficacy, earning poor grades, and suffering from. 69 Contraindications edit This section is transcluded from Amphetamine. ( edit history ) According to the International Programme on Chemical Safety (ipcs) and United States food and Drug Administration (usfda note 5 amphetamine is contraindicated in people with a history of drug abuse, note 6 cardiovascular disease, severe agitation, or severe anxiety.

It is also contraindicated in people currently experiencing advanced arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries glaucoma (increased eye pressure hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormone or moderate to severe hypertension. These agencies indicate that people who have experienced allergic reactions to other stimulants or who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (maois) should not take amphetamine, although safe concurrent use of amphetamine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors has been documented. 75 76 These agencies also state that anyone with anorexia nervosa, bipolar disorder, depression, hypertension, english liver or kidney problems, mania, psychosis, raynaud's phenomenon, seizures, thyroid problems, tics, or tourette syndrome should monitor their symptoms while taking amphetamine. 73 74 evidence from human studies indicates that therapeutic amphetamine use does not cause developmental abnormalities in the fetus or newborns (i.e., it is not a human teratogen but amphetamine abuse does pose risks to the fetus. 74 Amphetamine has also been shown to pass into breast milk, so the ipcs and usfda advise mothers to avoid breastfeeding when using. 73 74 due to the potential for reversible growth impairments, note 7 the usfda advises monitoring the height and weight of children and adolescents prescribed an amphetamine pharmaceutical. 73 Side effects edit part of this section is transcluded from Amphetamine.

Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 535 of college students use diverted adhd stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs. However, high amphetamine doses that are above the therapeutic range can interfere with working memory and other aspects of cognitive control. 13 54 Physical performance edit Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and athletic performance-enhancing effects, such as increased endurance and alertness; 14 27 however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies. 59 60 In healthy people at oral therapeutic doses, amphetamine has been shown to increase muscle strength, acceleration, athletic performance in anaerobic conditions, and endurance (i.e., it delays the onset of fatigue while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and effluxion of dopamine in the central nervous system.


61 62 Amphetamine and other dopaminergic drugs also increase power output at fixed levels of perceived exertion by overriding a "safety switch" that allows the core temperature limit to increase in order to access a reserve capacity that is normally off-limits. At therapeutic doses, the adverse effects of amphetamine do not impede athletic performance; 14 61 however, at much higher doses, amphetamine can induce effects that severely impair performance, such as rapid muscle breakdown and elevated body temperature. Adderall has been banned in the national football league (nfl major league baseball (mlb national Basketball Association (nba and the national Collegiate Athletics Association (ncaa). 66 In leagues such as the nfl, there is a very rigorous process required to obtain an exemption to this rule even when the athlete has been medically prescribed the drug by their physician. 66 Recreational edit see also: History and culture of substituted amphetamines Adderall has a high potential for misuse as a recreational drug. Adderall tablets can be crushed and snorted, or dissolved in water and injected.

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In the United States, the immediate and extended release (XR) formulations of Adderall are both available as generic drugs, while mydayis is available only as a brand-name drug. Citation needed Enhancing performance business edit part of this section is transcluded from Amphetamine. ( edit history ) Cognitive performance edit In 2015, a systematic review and a meta-analysis of high quality clinical trials found that, when used at low (therapeutic) doses, amphetamine produces modest yet unambiguous improvements thank in cognition, including working memory, long-term episodic memory, inhibitory control, and. 13 49 A systematic review from 2014 found that low doses of amphetamine also improve memory consolidation, in turn leading to improved recall of information. 51 Therapeutic doses of amphetamine also enhance cortical network efficiency, an effect which mediates improvements in working memory in all individuals. 13 52 Amphetamine and other adhd stimulants also improve task saliency (motivation to perform a task) and increase arousal (wakefulness in turn promoting goal-directed behavior. Stimulants such as amphetamine can improve performance on difficult and boring tasks and are used by some students as a study and test-taking aid.

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Approximately 80 of those who use these stimulants see improvements in adhd symptoms. 40 Children with adhd who use stimulant medications generally have better relationships with peers and family members, perform better in school, are less distractible and impulsive, and have longer attention spans. 41 42 The cochrane collaboration 's reviews note 4 on the treatment of adhd in children, adolescents, and adults with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that while these drugs improve short-term symptoms, they have higher discontinuation rates than non-stimulant medications due to their adverse side effects. 44 45 a cochrane collaboration review on the treatment of adhd in children with tic disorders such as tourette syndrome indicated that stimulants in general do not make tics worse, but high doses of dextroamphetamine could exacerbate tics in some individuals. 46 available going forms edit Adderall is available as immediate-release tablets or two different extended-release formulations. 11 47 The extended-release capsules are generally used in the morning. 48 A shorter, 12-hour extended-release formulation is available under the brand Adderall xr and is designed to provide a therapeutic effect and plasma concentrations identical to taking two doses 4 hours apart. 47 The longer extended-release formulation, approved for 16 hours, is available under the brand Mydayis.

or nerve damage, 31 32 but, in humans with adhd, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with adhd, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of adhd. Randomized controlled trials of continuous stimulant therapy for the treatment of adhd spanning 2 years have demonstrated treatment effectiveness and safety. 36 38 Two reviews have indicated that long-term continuous stimulant therapy for adhd is effective for reducing the core symptoms of adhd (i.e., hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity enhancing quality of life and academic achievement, and producing improvements in a large number of functional outcomes note. 37 38 One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for adhd in children that found an average increase.5 iq points, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity. 36 Another review indicated that, based upon the longest follow-up studies conducted to date, lifetime stimulant therapy that begins during childhood is continuously effective for controlling adhd symptoms and reduces the risk of developing a substance use disorder as an adult. 38 Current models of adhd suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems ; 23 these functional impairments involve impaired dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic projection and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus. 23 Psychostimulants like methylphenidate and amphetamine are effective in treating adhd because they increase neurotransmitter activity in these systems.

In contrast, much larger doses of Adderall can impair cognitive control, cause rapid muscle breakdown, or induce a psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia). The side effects of Adderall vary widely among individuals, but most commonly include insomnia, dry mouth, and loss of appetite. The risk of developing an addiction is insignificant when Adderall is used as prescribed at fairly low daily doses, such as those used for treating adhd; however, the routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses poses a significant risk of addiction due to the. Recreational doses of Adderall are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses, and carry a far greater risk of serious adverse effects. Sources 2 The two amphetamine enantiomers that compose Adderall (i.e., levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine) alleviate the symptoms of adhd and narcolepsy by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, which results in part from their interactions with human trace amine-associated receptor. Dextroamphetamine is a more potent cns stimulant than levoamphetamine, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects and a longer elimination half-life (i.e., it remains in the body paperless longer) than dextroamphetamine. The levoamphetamine component of Adderall has been reported to improve the treatment response in some individuals relative to dextroamphetamine alone. Adderall's active ingredient, amphetamine, shares many chemical and pharmacological properties with the human trace amines, particularly phenethylamine and n -methylphenethylamine, the latter of which is a positional isomer of amphetamine. Sources 3 Contents Medical edit part of this section is transcluded from Amphetamine.

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This article is about a specific mixture of the two amphetamine enantiomers. For more information on the amphetamine compound and other mixtures of the enantiomers, see. Adderall, note 1, adderall xr, and, mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class. Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd) and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. By salt content, the active ingredients of Adderall, Adderall xr, and Mydayis are 25 levoamphetamine salts (the levorotatory or 'left-handed' enantiomer) and 75 dextroamphetamine salts (the dextrorotatory or 'right-handed' enantiomer). Note 2 sources 1, adderall is generally well-tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of adhd and narcolepsy. At help therapeutic doses, Adderall causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. At these doses, it induces physical effects such as a faster reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength.


oral report writing it is used in
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Oral contract - an agreement that is not in writing and is not signed by the parties but is a real existing contract that lacks only. Hence it is crucial that you mention the right numbers of elements, units and indicators in the cdr summary statement and link them.

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  1. the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings. It has been said that the word document as used in the law of evidence should not be construed restrictively. In today's competitive world, a good writing must engage a reader. Whether it is a proposal or a resume, the reader must feel involved.

  2. david healy of leading to suicidal behaviors.108 It is not known if Cho ever complied in filling or taking this prescription;. to xenophon's work until the middle Ages, and it is more likely apomnemoneumata was used to describe the oral transmission of the. meaning that the accused will be responsible if it is determined that there is at least.1 chance that the assault occurred.

  3. on whether it will discuss the written communication many. Most may often times it is used in writing module 3 charactertistic. So it is necessary to follow a definite structure in writing an effective market report. Zinc supplementation may reduce the minimum effective dose of amphetamine when it is used for the treatment of te 13141.

  4. Business report is a type of academic writing in which the author analyses a business situation that is either real or is a case study. What, exactly, is a feasibility report, and how is it written? Business writing tip - useful phrases in English for recommendation. people make in cdr summary Statement writing is that they direct the assessor to the wrong paragraph in the career Episodes they have.

  5. Short reports can be drafted in two different forms. These are letter form or letter report and memorandum form or memo report. nearly all parents (93) report that they provide some assistance when their child is writing.

  6. Reasons: When writing the report, it is normal to include references and"tions from the work of others. It is noted in western history as the foe of the Greek city states in the Greco-persian Wars, for freeing the Israelites from their. That term is also used for Chuanqiandian miao as a whole, or it may be restricted to the varieties of Hmong spoken in, china. in technical writing, oral presentation, public relations, and other communication-related topics relevant to engineering practice.

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