Biography on gandhi ji

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28 64 Guru Arjan was a prolific poet and composed 2,218 hymns, or more than a third and the largest collection of hymns in the guru Granth Sahib. According to Christopher Shackle and Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, guru Arjan's compositions combined spiritual message in an "encyclopedic linguistic sophistication" with "Braj Bhasha forms and learned Sanskrit vocabulary". 65 After Guru Arjan completed and installed the Adi Granth in the harimandir Sahib, Emperor Akbar was informed of the development with the allegation that it contained teachings hostile to Islam. He ordered a copy be brought to him. Guru Arjan sent him a copy on a thali (plate with the following message that was later added to the expanded text: In this thali (dish) you will find three things truth, peace and contemplation: in this too the nectar Name which is the support. — ag 1429, translated by william Owen Cole and piara singh Sambhi 66 The akbarnama by Abu'l-fazl Allami mentions that Guru Arjan met the mughal emperor Akbar and his cortege in 1598. According to louis Fenech, this meeting likely influenced the development of sikh manuscriptology and the later martial tradition.

The pool area grew into a temple complex with the gurdwara harmandir settlement Sahib near the pool. Guru Arjan installed the scripture of sikhism inside the new temple in 1604. 6 The city that emerged is now known as Amritsar, and is the holiest pilgrimage site in sikhism. 6 60 Continuing the efforts of Guru ram Das, guru Arjan established Amritsar as a primary sikh pilgrimage destination. He wrote a voluminous amount of sikh scripture including the popular sukhmani sahib. Guru Arjan is credited with completing many other infrastructure projects, such as water reservoirs called Santokhsar (lake of peace) and Gangsar (lake of Ganga founding the towns of Tarn Taran, kartarpur and Hargobindpur. 61 62 Adi Granth edit One of the sikh community disputes following Guru ram Das was the emergence of new hymns claiming to have been composed by nanak. According to faction led by guru Arjan, these hymns were distorted and fake, with some blaming Prithi Chand and his sikh faction for having composed and circulated them. 23 63 The concern and the possibility of wrong propaganda, immoral teachings and inauthentic Gurbani led Guru Arjan to initiate a major effort to collect, study, approve and compile a written official scripture, and this he called Adi Granth, the first edition of the sikh. 26 28 The composition of both Prithi Chand and his followers have been preserved in the mina texts of sikhism, while the mainstream and larger sikh tradition adopted the guru Granth Sahib scripture that ultimately emerged from the initiative brown of Guru Arjan.

biography on gandhi ji

mahatma, gandhi biography in Hindi

He, in one version, takes revenge on Guru Arjan for not marrying his son Hargobind to Chandu Shah's daughter. In another Lahore version, Chandu Shah actually prevents Guru Arjan from suffering torture and death by muslims by paying 200,000 rupees (100,000 crusados) to jahangir, but then keeps him and emotionally torments him to death in his house. 56 All these versions and meta-narratives became popular in 19th century British colonial literature, such as those of Max pdf Arthur Macauliffe. 57 several alternative versions of the story try to absolve jahangir and the mughal empire of any responsibility, 52 58 but have no trace or support in the documentary evidence from early 17th century, such as the records of Jesuit priest Jerome xavier and the. Influence edit guru Arjan being pronounced as fifth Guru. Amritsar edit guru Arjan's father Guru ram Das founded the town named after him "Ramdaspur around a large man-made water pool called "Ramdas Sarovar". Guru Arjan continued the infrastructure building effort of his father. The town expanded during the time of Guru Arjan, financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work.

biography on gandhi ji

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2 Michael Barnes states that the resolve and death of desk Guru Arjun strengthened the conviction among sikhs that, "personal piety must have a core of moral strength. A virtuous soul must be a courageous soul. Willingness to suffer trial for one's convictions was a religious imperative". 2 Historical revisionism, reconstruction and disputes edit There are several stories and versions about how, where and why guru Arjan died. Recent scholarship 54 55 has questioned many of these, calling them as fictional interpretation, reflecting an agenda, or "exaggerating fragmentary traces of documentary evidence in historical analysis". The alternate versions include stories about the role of Guru Arjan in a conflict between the mughal Emperor Jahangir and his son who jahangir suspected of trying to organize a patricidal coup. An alternate version highlights the role of a hindu minister of Jahangir named Chandu Shah.

11 42 Some scholars state that the evidence is unclear whether his death was due to execution, torture or forced drowning in the ravi river. Grewal notes that sikh sources from the seventeenth and eighteenth century contain contradictory reports of Guru Arjan's death. Richard states that Jahangir was persistently hostile to popularly venerated non-Islamic religious figures, not just sikhism. 46 Bhai gurdas was a contemporary of Guru Arjan and is a noted 17th-century sikh chronicler. 47 His eyewitness account recorded Guru Arjan life, and the order by Emperor Jahangir to torture the guru to death. 48 A contemporary jesuit account, written by Spanish Jesuit missionary jerome xavier (15491617 who was in Lahore at the time, records that the sikhs tried to get Jahangir to substitute the torture and death sentence to a heavy fine, but this attempt failed. 49 Dabistan-i mazahib Mobad states Jahangir tortured Guru Arjan in the hopes of extracting the money and public repudiation of his spiritual convictions, but the guru refused and was executed. 50 Jerome xavier, in appreciation of the courage of Guru Arjun, wrote back to lisbon, that Guru Arjan suffered and was tormented.

Biography - life, family, childhood, story, death

biography on gandhi ji

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30 31 Most Mughal historians considered Guru Arjan's execution as a political event, stating that the sikhs had become formidable as a social group, and sikh Gurus became actively involved in donation the punjabi political conflicts. 10 31 note 1 A similar theory floated in early 20th-century, asserts that this was just a politically-motivated single execution. 32 According to this theory, there was an ongoing Mughal dynasty dispute between Jahangir papers and his son Khusrau suspected of rebellion by jahangir, wherein Guru Arjan blessed Khusrau and thus the losing side. Jahangir was jealous and outraged, and therefore he ordered the guru's execution. 33 34 6 The sikh tradition has a competing view.

It states that the guru's execution was a part of the ongoing persecution of the sikhs by Islamic authorities in the mughal Empire, 35 and that the mughal rulers of Punjab were alarmed at the growth of the panth. According to jahangir 's autobiography tuzk-e-jahangiri ( Jahangirnama too many people were becoming persuaded by guru Arjan's teachings and if Guru Arjan did not become a muslim, the sikh Panth had to be extinguished. 31 note 1 In 1606 ce, the guru was imprisoned in Lahore fort, where by some accounts he was tortured and executed, 11 37 and by other accounts the method of his death remains unresolved. 31 Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi cheered the punishment and execution of Guru Arjun, calling the sikh Guru an infidel. 38 note 2 According to the sikh tradition, before his execution, guru Arjan instructed his son and successor Hargobind to take up arms, and resist tyranny. 41 His execution led the sikh Panth to become armed and pursue resistance to persecution under the Islamic rule.

6 24 The stories in the sikh tradition about the succession dispute around Guru Arjan are inconsistent. 23 In one version, Prithi Chand is remembered in the sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a faction sikh community. 25 The sikhs following Guru Arjan called the Prithi Chand faction as Minas (literally, "scoundrels who are alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind, 26 27 and befriended Mughal agents. 23 However, the second version, found in alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led sikh faction contradict this version (their non-derogatory name is Miharvan sikhs ). They offer a different explanation for the attempt on Hargobind's life, and present the elder son of Guru ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Guru Arjan.

The competing texts do acknowledge their disagreement. They state Prithi Chand left Amritsar, became the sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan and one who disputed the succession of Guru hargobind as the next Guru. 28 The mainstream sikh tradition recognised Guru Arjan as the fifth Guru, and Hargobind as the sixth Guru. Arjan, at age 18, became the fifth Guru in 1581 inheriting the title from his father. After his execution by the muslim officials of the mughal Empire, his son Hargobind became the sixth Guru in 1606. 14 Martyrdom edit guru Arjan's martyrdom in Mughal custody has been one of the defining though controversial issues in sikh history.

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17 Per sikh tradition, he had stayed for two years in Lahore during his youth after being sent by his father to attend the wedding of the his first cousin Sahari mal's son as well as to establish a sikh congregation. 20 he was appointed as the sikh Guru in 1581 after the death of his father. 21 Ram Das was a khatri of the sodhi sub-caste. With Arjan's succession, the guruship remained in the sodhi family of Ram Das. 22 Succession edit Arjan had two elder brothers, Prithi Chand and Mahadev. Guru ram Das chose Arjan, the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth sikh Guru. Mahadev, the middle brother chose the life of an ascetic. 23 His choice of Arjan as successor, as throughout most of the history of sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the sikhs.

biography on gandhi ji

10 12 Historical records words and the sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. 10 13 His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of sikhism. 10 14 It is remembered as Shaheedi divas of Guru Arjan in may or June according to the nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani gurdwara parbandhak committee in 2003. 15 Contents biography edit Arjan was born in goindval to bibi Bhani and Jetha sodhi. Bibi Bhani was the daughter of Guru Amar Das, and her husband Jetha sodhi later came to be known as Guru ram Das. Arjan's birthplace site is now memorialized as the gurdwara Chaubara sahib. 16 he had two brothers: Prithi Chand and Mahadev. 17 18 Various sikh chroniclers give his birth year as 1553 or 1563, the latter is accepted by scholarly consensus as the actual year of birth with 15 April as the accepted birth date. 19 Arjan spent the first 11 years of his life in goindwal and the next seven years with his father in Ramdaspur.

edition of the sikh scripture, and installed it in the harimandir Sahib. 6, guru Arjan reorganized the, masands system initiated by, guru ram Das, by suggesting that the sikhs donate, if possible, one-tenth of their income, goods or service to the sikh organization ( dasvand ). The masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). 9 Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. 10 11 he refused, was tortured and executed in 1606.

Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total. He compiled the first official edition of the sikh scripture called the. Adi Granth, pdf which later expanded into the. He was born in, goindval, in the, punjab, the youngest son of Bhai jetha, who later became. Guru ram Das, and, mata Bhani, the daughter of, guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in sikhism to be born into a sikh family. 5, guru Arjan led, sikhism for a quarter of a century.

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Mahatma gandhi, mahatma gandhi, mahatma gandhi ( Mahatma gandhi wife name, kasturba gandhi ) Mahatma gandhi biography in Hindi, mahatma gandhi Information, mahatma gandhi. Mahatma gandhi books , Mahatma gandhi death Mahatma gandhi, : Hope you find this post about Mahatma gandhi biography in Hindi useful. If you like this information please share on Facebook. Note: we try hard for correctness and accuracy. Please tell us If you see something that doesnt look correct in this article about Mahatma gandhi history in Hindi And if you have more information History of MK Gandhi then help for the improvements this article. Some information from bbc. Guru resume Arjan 2 3 punjabi : guru Arjan ɡʊru əɾdʒən ) ) 1 was the first of the two gurus martyred in the.

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  1. Mahatma gandhi Ebooks, free download Gandhi ebooks at one click. Indira gandhi Short biography In Hindi And All Information About Indira gandhi In Hindi language with Life history for Students Writing Essay. Confucius: Confucius, Chinas most famous teacher, philosopher, and political theorist, whose ideas have influenced the civilization of East Asia. Confuciuss life, in contrast to his tremendous importance, seems starkly undramatic, or, as a chinese expression has it, it seems plain and real.

  2. Welcome to the world's most visited and popular Mahatma gandhi website, ndhi, mahatma, photographs of mahatma gandhi, ghandi, mahatma, mohandas, peace, conflict resolution. Arjan was born in goindval to bibi Bhani and Jetha sodhi. Bibi Bhani was the daughter of Guru Amar Das, and her husband Jetha sodhi later came to be known as Guru ram Das.

  3. Mahatma gandhi biography in Hindi & all Information about mk gandhi history, with Essay, paragraph, nibandh, Speech in Hindi. Biography early life and background. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on to a hindu modh Baniya family in Porbandar (also known as Sudamapuri a coastal town on the kathiawar Peninsula and then part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire. Had a close association with the former Indian Prime minister Indira gandhi and her son Rajiv gandhi (also Prime minister) and he was elected to parliament with a huge majority from his home town of Allahabad.

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