Osteoporosis paper

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38 Dimming the lights can also cause problems when the intensity is then abruptly increased temporarily to inspect the hens; this has been associated as a risk factor of increased feather pecking 39 and the birds can become frightened resulting in panic-type hysteria reactions which. Being indoors, hens in battery cages do not see sunlight. Whilst there is no scientific evidence for this being a welfare problem, some animal advocates indicate it is a concern. 40 41 Furnished cages and some other non-cage indoor systems would also prevent hens seeing natural light throughout their lives. Osteoporosis edit several studies have indicated that toward the end of the laying phase (approximately 72 weeks of age a combination of high calcium demand for egg production and a lack of exercise can lead to osteoporosis. This can occur in all housing systems for egg laying hens, but is particularly prevalent in battery cage systems where it has sometimes been called 'cage layer osteoporosis'.

Eu standards in 2003 called for at least 550 cm2 per hen. 30 In the us, the current recommendation by the United Egg Producers is 67 to 86 in2 (430 to 560 cm2) per bird. 31 The space available to each hen in a battery cage has often been described as less than the size of a sheet of A4 paper (624 cm2). 32 Others have ghostwriter commented that a typical cage is about the size of a filing cabinet drawer and holds eight to 10 hens. 13 Behavioural studies showed that when turning, hens used 540 to 1006 cm2, when stretching wings 653 to 1118 cm2, when wing flapping 860 to 1980 cm2, when feather ruffling 676 to 1604 cm2, when preening 814 to 1240 cm2, and when ground scratching 540 to 1005 cm2. 34 A space allowance of 550 cm2 would prevent hens in battery cages from performing these behaviours without touching another hen. Animal welfare scientists have been critical of battery cages because of these space restrictions 35 and it is widely considered that hens suffer boredom and frustration when unable to perform these behaviours. 36 Spatial restriction can lead to a wide range of abnormal behaviours, some of which are injurious to the hens or their cagemates. Light manipulation edit further information: feather pecking Light manipulations Battery cages - note the low light intensity beyond range of the camera flashgun to reduce the harmful effects of feather pecking, cannibalism and vent-pecking, hens in battery cages (and other housing systems) are often kept. Less than 10 lux). Low light intensites may be associated with welfare costs to the hens as they prefer to eat in brightly lit environments 37 and prefer brightly lit areas for active behaviour but dim (less than 10 lux) for inactive behaviour.

osteoporosis paper

Esceo: The european Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects

Animal rights groups have used videos of live chicks being placed into macerators as evidence of cruelty in the egg production industry. 25 Maceration, together with cervical dislocation and asphyxiation by carbon dioxide, are all considered acceptable methods of euthanasia by the American Veterinary medical Association. 26 27 Consumers may also be appalled simply by the death of animals that are not subsequently eaten. 28 beak-trimming edit main article: Debeaking to essays reduce the harmful effects of feather pecking, cannibalism and vent pecking, most chicks eventually going into battery cages are beak-trimmed. This is often performed on the first day after hatching, simultaneously with sexing and receiving vaccinations. Beak-trimming is a procedure considered by many scientists to cause acute pain and distress with possible chronic pain; it is practised on chicks for all types of housing systems, not only battery cages. 29 Cage size edit battery cage At approximately 16 weeks of age, pullets (hens which have not yet started to lay) are placed into cages. In countries with relevant legislation, floor space for battery cages ranges upwards from 300 cm2 per bird.

osteoporosis paper

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During 2013 the state government of Tasmania was planning to phase out battery cages and budgeting for financial compensation for affected farmers but this was scrapped following the 2014 election. 22 23 Attempts to change the law have been an object of contention; rspca australia officially campaigns against cage eggs. Welfare concerns edit There are several welfare concerns regarding the battery cage system of housing and husbandry. These are presented below in the approximate chronological order they would influence the hens. Chick culling edit main article: Chick culling due to modern selective breeding, laying hen strains are different from those of meat production strains. Male birds of the laying strains do not lay eggs and are unsuitable for meat production, therefore, they are culled soon after being sexed, often on the day of hatching. 24 Methods of culling include cervical dislocation, asphyxiation by carbon dioxide and maceration using a high speed grinder.

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osteoporosis paper

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Some animal welfare organisations, such as Compassion in World Farming, have criticised this move, calling for enriched cages to essay be prohibited as they believe they provide no significant or worthwhile welfare benefits compared with conventional battery cages. Germany banned conventional battery cages from 2007, five years earlier than required by the eu directive, 14 and has prohibited enriched cages from 2012. Citation needed mahi Klosterhalfen of the Albert Schweitzer foundation has been instrumental in a strategic campaign against battery cages in Germany. 15 Switzerland edit Switzerland banned battery cages from ; it was the first country to impose such a ban. 16 United States edit (Oregon has also banned battery cages) us states with bans on battery cages for laying hens Laws prohibiting battery cages Moratorium on permits for new battery cage construction The passage of California proposition 2 (2008) aimed, in part, to reduce.

Battery cages are also illegal in Michigan due to hb 5127, passed in 2009, which mandates that certain farm animals have enough room to stand up, lie down, turn around and extend their limbs, rather than being confined in tiny cages. 17 In Ohio, there is a moratorium on permits for the construction of new battery cages as of June 2010. 18 Oregon sb 805 also banned battery cages and set forth a transition to enriched colony cages, doubling the space per egg-laying hen. 19 20 This law served as the model for a national agreement between the humane society of the United States and the United Egg Producers. 21 Australia edit The 2009 'code of Practice' permits the use of battery cages. A written commitment by the federal government to review the practice was scheduled in 2010; there was no further communication.

Labor requirements are generally much reduced 12 They also cite disadvantages to cages:. The handling of manure may be a problem. Generally, flies become a greater nuisance. The investment per pullet may be higher than in the case of floor operations. There is a slightly higher percentage of blood spots in the eggs. The bones are more fragile and processors often discount the fowl price.


12 Disadvantages 1 and 2 can be eliminated by manure conveyors, but some industrial systems do not feature manure conveyors. 13 Legislation edit This section needs expansion. You can help by adding. (September 2009) European Union edit In 1999, the european Union council Directive 1999/74/EC 6 banned the conventional battery cage in the eu from 2012, after a 12-year phase-out. In their 1996 report, the european Commission's Scientific Veterinary committee (SVC) condemned the battery cage, concluding: "It is clear that because of its small size and its barrenness, the battery cage as used at present has inherent severe disadvantages for the welfare of hens". The eu directive allows enriched or " furnished " cages to be used. Under the directive, enriched cages must be at least 45 cm high and must provide each hen with at least 750 cm of space; 600 cm of this must be "usable area" the other 150 cm is for a nest-box. The cage must also contain litter, perches and "claw-shortening devices".

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The practice of battery cages was criticized in Ruth Harrison 's landmark book animal Machines, published in 1964. 11 A simple battery cage oliver system with no conveyors for feed or eggs In 1990, north and Bell reported that 75 of all commercial layers in the world and 95 in the United essay States were kept in cages. 12 by all accounts, a caged layer facility is more expensive to build than high-density floor confinement, but can be cheaper to operate if designed to minimize labor. North and Bell report the following economic advantages to laying cages:. It is easier to care for the pullets; no birds are underfoot. Floor eggs are eliminated. In most instances, less feed is required to produce a dozen eggs. More pullets may be housed in a given house floor space. Internal parasites are eliminated.

osteoporosis paper

This method is still used today. Video advertising the personal system in the early history of the battery cage early reports from Arndt about battery cages were enthusiastic. Arndt reported: "This form of battery is coming into widespread use throughout the country and apparently is solving a number of the troubles encountered with laying hens in the regular laying house on the floor. In the first edition of this book i spoke of my experimental work with 220 pullets which were retained for one year in individual cages. At the end of this year it was found that the birds confined in the batteries outlaid considerably the same size flock in the regular houses. The birds consume less feed than those on the floor and this coupled with the increased production made them more profitable than the same number of pullets in the laying house. 9 A number of progressive poultrymen from all over the United States and some in foreign countries cooperated with me in carrying on experimental work with this type of battery and each and every one of them were very well satisfied with the results obtained. In fact, a number of them have since placed their entire laying flocks in individual hen batteries." 9 In 1967, samuel Duff filed a patent for "battery cages" in patent US3465722. 10 The use of laying batteries increased gradually, becoming the dominant method somewhat before the integration of the egg industry in the 1960s.

for kopi luwak (coffee) production History edit before the cage was invented, when? most hens were free-range. Citation needed An early reference to battery cages appears in Milton Arndt's 1931 book, battery Brooding, where he reports that his cage flock was healthier and had higher egg production than his conventional flock. 9 At this early date, battery cages already had the sloped floor that allowed eggs to roll to the front of the cage, where they were easily collected by the farmer and out of the hens' reach. Arndt also mentions the use of conveyor belts under the cages to remove manure, which provide better air control quality and reduce fly breeding. 9 Original battery cages extended the technology used in battery brooders, which were cages with a wire mesh floor and integral heating elements for brooding chicks. The wire floor allowed the manure to pass through, removing it from the chicks' environment and reducing the risk of manure-borne diseases. Early battery cages were often used for selecting hens based on performance, since it is easy to track how many eggs each hen is laying if only one hen is placed in a cage. Later, this was combined with artificial insemination, giving a technique where each egg's parentage is known.

Although the term is usually applied to poultry farming, similar cage systems are used for other animals. Battery cages have generated controversy between advocates for animal rights and industrial producers. Battery cages are the predominant form of housing for laying hens worldwide. 1 2 3, they reduce aggression and cannibalism among hens, but are barren, restrict movement, prevent many natural behaviours, and increase rates of osteoporosis. 3, as of 2014, approximately world 95 of eggs in the us were produced in battery cages. 4, in the uk, statistics from the. Department for the Environment, food and Rural Affairs (Defra) indicate that 50 of eggs produced in the uk throughout 2010 were from cages (45 from free-range, 5 from barns). 5, however, introduction of the, european Union council Directive 1999/74/EC 6 which banned conventional battery cages in the eu from January 2012 for welfare reasons, means the number of eggs from battery cages in the eu states is rapidly decreasing. Examples edit, battery cages also used for mink, rabbit, chinchilla and foxes in fur farming, and most recently for the.

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"Why patented Crystalline Glucosamine sulfate (pCGS) is different from Other Glucosamines in the Treatment of interests Osteoarthritis (OA) and Should be recommended as First Line Therapy". In December 2015, the paper published by Olivier Bruyère, member of the Scientific Advisory board of esceo, in Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2014) has benefited from a high visibility in the Asian press: a total of 160 media postings in Thailand, China, russia and. This is a huge opportunity for esceo and for our Osteoarthritis Treatment Algorithm to be seen and read all over the world. Chickens in battery cages showing the banks of cages. Chickens in battery cages showing individual cages. Battery cages are a housing system used for various animal production methods, but primarily for egg-laying hens. The name arises from the arrangement of rows and columns of identical cages connected together, in a unit, as in an artillery battery.


osteoporosis paper
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We urgently need public health strategies to maintain bone health, and prevent osteoporosis. Faclm, is a physician, new York times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues.

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  1. The european Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (esceo) is a not-for-profit organization, dedicated to a close interaction between clinical scientists dealing with bone, joint and muscle disorder, pharmaceutical industry developing new compounds in this field, regulators responsible for. Vegetables and fruit, such as dried plums, may help build stronger bones. We are in an epidemic of osteoporosis. Ten million Americans have it, and one in three older women will get.

  2. McKeown t, butterfield wjh, cochrane al,. The Frequency of Occurrence, impact and Cost of Selected Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States. Clinical Practice from The new England journal of Medicine — postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

  3. Although bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis (bmd t score,.50 or lower) is recommended for women 65 years of age or older, there are few data to guide decisions about the interval between bmd tests. We studied 4957 women, 67 years of age or older, with normal bmd (T. The benefits of using progesterone cream to treat osteoporosis.

  4. You either have to prevent loss of bone mass, or increase it later if you don't. While estrogen therapy slows bone loss, it does not stop bone loss; it does not prevent bone loss; it does not reverse bone loss. But optimum nutrition can, without estrogen's accompanying risks.

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