The sim card allows users to change phones by simply removing essay the sim card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device, provided that this is not prevented by a sim lock. The first sim card was made in 1991 by munich smart card maker giesecke devrient for the finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja. Citation needed a hybrid mobile phone can hold up to four sim cards, with a phone having an imei per sim card. Sim and r-uim cards may be mixed together to allow both gsm and cdma networks to be accessed. From 2010 onwards, such phones became popular in emerging markets, 22 and this was attributed to the desire to obtain the lowest on-net calling rate. Infrastructure main articles: Cellular network and wifi mobile phones communicate with cell towers that are placed to give coverage across a telephone service area which is divided up into 'cells'. Each cell uses a different set of frequencies from neighbouring cells, and will typically be covered by 3 towers placed at different locations.
Battery and battery life The average phone battery lasts 2-3 years at best. Many of the wireless devices use a lithium-Ion (li-ion) battery, which charges times, depending on how users take care of the battery and the charging techniques used. 19 It is only natural for these rechargeable batteries to chemically age, which is why the performance of the battery when used for a year or two will begin to deteriorate. Battery life can be extended by draining it regularly, not overcharging it, and keeping it away from heat. 20 21 sim card writing main articles: Subscriber Identity module and Removable User Identity module typical mobile phone mini- sim card. Gsm feature phones require a small microchip called a subscriber Identity module or sim card, in order to function. The sim card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The sim securely stores the service-subscriber key (imsi) and the ki used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone.
Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones and offer basic telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native software applications are known as smartphones. Sound In sound, smartphones and feature phones vary little. Some audio-quality enhancing features, such as voice over lte and hd voice, have appeared and are often available on newer smartphones. Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long distance calls. 16 17 Audio quality can be improved using a voip application over wifi. 18 Cellphones have small speakers so that the user can use a speakerphone feature and talk to a person on the phone without holding it to their ear. The small speakers can also be used to listen to digital audio files of music or speech or watch videos with an audio component, without holding the phone close to the ear.
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Kosher phone There are Orthodox Jewish religious restrictions which, by some interpretations, standard mobile telephones overstep. To deal with this problem, some rabbinical organizations have recommended that phones with text-messaging capability not be used by children. 14 Phones with restricted features are known as kosher phones and have rabbinical approval for use in Israel and elsewhere by observant Orthodox Jews. Although these phones are intended to prevent immodesty, some vendors report good sales to adults who prefer the simplicity of the devices. Some phones are approved for use by essential workers banks (such as health, security, and public service workers) on the sabbath, even though the use of any electrical device is generally prohibited during this time. 15 Hardware main article: Mobile phone features The common components found on all phones are: A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions.
An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. These are a keypad for feature phones and touch screens for most smartphones. A screen which echoes the user's typing, and displays text messages, contacts, and more. Basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text messages. All gsm phones use a sim card to allow an account to be swapped among devices. Some cdma devices also have a similar card called an r-uim. Individual gsm, wcdma, iden and some satellite phone devices are uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity ( imei ) number.
10 Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the wimax standard, offered in North America by Sprint, and the lte standard, first offered in Scandinavia by teliasonera. Types Smartphone main article: Smartphone Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. 11 Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features. The International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active mobile-Broadband subscriptions (which includes tablets, etc.). In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems.
However, in the developing world, they account for around 50 of mobile telephony. Feature phone main article: feature phone feature phone is a term typically used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones typically provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, and other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone which is only capable of voice calling and text messaging. 12 13 feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface. By contrast, smartphones generally use a mobile operating system that often shares common traits across devices.
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These first-generation ( 1G ) way systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the dynatac 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the second-generation ( 2G ) digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by radiolinja on the gsm standard. This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation ( 3G resume ) was launched in Japan by ntt docomo on the wcdma standard. 9 This was followed.5G, 3G or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access (hspa) family, allowing umts networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media.
The motorola dynatac 8000X. First commercially available handheld cellular mobile phone, 1984. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by john. Mitchell 1 2 and Martin cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms (4.4 lb). 3 The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by nippon Telegraph bibliography and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the nordic Mobile telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, finland, norway, and Sweden. 8 several other countries then followed in the early to mid-1980s.
dynatac model on April 4, 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007. A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War ii, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations starting with the early zeroth-generation ( 0G ) services, such as Bell System 's Mobile telephone service and its successor, the Improved Mobile telephone service. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, and were very expensive.
Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones ; mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones. The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by john. Mitchell 1 2 and Martin cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs). 3 In 1979, nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. 4 In 1983, the dynatac 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion, penetrating virtually 100 of the global population and reaching even the bottom of the economic pyramid. 5 In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were samsung, apple, and huawei (and "smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales.homework
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"Cell phone" redirects here. For the film, see. For the mobile personal computer, see. Evolution of mobile phones, to an early smartphone. A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (pstn). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, thank mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, mms, email, internet access, short-range wireless communications ( infrared, bluetooth business applications, video games, and digital photography.